Cerebrovascular disease In the Blood Vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation
Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine and Therapy is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal with an aim to provide rapid and reliable source of information on current discoveries and current developments in the field of cardiovascular. It aims to be an internationally leading journal which keeps cardiologist, internists and physicians up-to-date by publishing clinically relevant and evidence-based research.
Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation. Arteries supplying oxygen and nutrients to the brain are often damaged or deformed in these disorders. The most common presentation of cerebrovascular disease is an ischemic stroke or mini-stroke and sometimes a hemorrhagic stroke. Hypertension (high blood pressure) is the most important contributing risk factor for stroke and cerebrovascular diseases as it can change the structure of blood vessels and result in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis narrows blood vessels in the brain, resulting in decreased cerebral perfusion. Other risk factors that contribute to stroke include smoking and diabetes. Narrowed cerebral arteries can lead to ischemic stroke, but continually elevated blood pressure can also cause tearing of vessels, leading to a hemorrhagic stroke.
The most common presentation of cerebrovascular diseases is an acute stroke, which occurs when blood supply to the brain is compromised. Symptoms of stroke are usually rapid in onset, and may include weakness of one side of the face or body, numbness on one side of the face or body, inability to produce or understand speech, vision changes, and balance difficulties. Hemorrhagic strokes can present with a very severe, sudden headache associated with vomiting, neck stiffness, and decreased consciousness. Symptoms vary depending on the location and the size of the area of involvement of the stroke. Edema, or swelling, of the brain may occur which increases intracranial pressure and may result in brain herniation. A stroke may result in coma or death if it involves key areas of the brain.
Other symptoms of cerebrovascular disease include migraines, seizures, epilepsy, or cognitive decline. However, cerebrovascular disease may go undetected for years until an acute stroke occurs. In addition, patients with some rare congenital cerebrovascular diseases may begin to have these symptoms in childhood
The coronary arteries are classified as "end circulation", since they represent the only source of blood supply to the myocardium; there is very little redundant blood supply, which is why blockage of these vessels can be so critical.
Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine and Therapy,