Clinical and Neuropsychological Characteristics


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The severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) , the Beck Depression Inventory Scale (BDI)  and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRSA) . The patients’ global functioning was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) scales, and the severity of their psychopathological condition was evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)

The participants underwent neuropsychological assessment by an experienced neuropsychologist (DM) at T1, T2 and T3, and the analyses included in this article focused especially on memory and frontal-executive functioning. The neuropsychological tests consisted of Raven’s Coloured Matrices (PM48) to evaluate logical operativity, Prose Memory , Digit Span  and Corsi’s Span to evaluate memory, Verbal Fluency , Semantic Fluency and Token Test .

To evaluate language ability, Trail Making Test (a, b, and b-a, taken as a measure of the speed of information processing and mental flexibility) , Attentive Matrices , the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) , scoring the number of categories achieved and the number of perseverative errors, and the Tower of London (ToL) test  (including the mean number of moves above the minimum possible, and the mean number of problems solved within one minute) to evaluate attentionexecutive ability.

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Nancy Ella
Journal Editor
Dual Diagnosis: Open Access
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