Computer science is the study of algorithmic processes, computational machines and computation itself. As a discipline, computer science spans a range of topics from theoretical studies of algorithms, computation and information to the practical issues of implementing computational systems in hardware and software. Its fields can be divided into theoretical and practical disciplines. For example, the theory of computation concerns abstract models of computation and general classes of problems that can be solved using them, while computer graphics or computational geometry emphasize more specific applications. Algorithms and data structures have been called the heart of computer science. Programming language theory considers approaches to the description of computational processes, while computer programming involves the use of them to create complex systems. Computer architecture describes construction of computer components and computer-operated equipment. Artificial intelligence aims to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, planning and learning found in humans and animals. A digital computer is capable of simulating various information processes. The fundamental concern of computer science is determining what can and cannot be automated. Computer scientists usually focus on academic research. The Turing Award is generally recognized as the highest distinction in computer sciences. The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division. Algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the development of sophisticated computing equipment.