Effects of Societal/Domestic Violence on Health of Women
Violence is widespread, affects women of all cultures globally, breeds in silence, and finds legitimacy through cultural norms. Perpretors are partners, husbands, family, and friends. It may be domestic violence (DV), sexual (SV) or other type of violence at home or work or public place, serious violation of women’s rights as human beings. It is important cause of physical, psychological health problems. Objectives: Objectives were to get information about burden of intimate partner/ domestic/societal violence, effects on women’s health. Information as per objectives was collected by various search engines by simple review and local research, experience of managing cases was added. Violence is personal, sensitive matter so there are limited planned studies. However, it is being increasingly discussed as global public health issue, human rights violation. Physical injury is most visible form of DV. Between 1-20% of women have been victims of DV during pregnancy too. Early marriage, alcohol, employment, unemployment, abuse as child, poverty, rapid socio economic changes, justification of wife beating are known causes. Studies regarding SV in India revealed cultures that approved violence, harmful gender norms, traditions, violence as accepted means of conflict resolution. Besides DV/SV, mental, financial violence also continue as decisions about financial spending, health care are made by men. Physical violence may cause fracture, other injuries abdominal, on private parts or pregnant uterus. Pregnancy outcome depends on duration of pregnancy, victimizing events. Many psychological consequences, suicides have been reported. Cost of violence in terms of health care is tremendous. Violence has varieties which affect, women’s health in many ways globally. For prevention, awakening of society, tackling inequalities, empowerment, integration of post violence care into reproductive health services are needed. Health providers need to be trained to support sufferers. Women need to be aware of services.
For prevention of violence of all types awakening of society, broader coalition between communities, health services are needed. There is need of integration of such services into reproductive health services. Providers need to be trained to support sufferers and women need to be aware of services. While attempts are needed to prevent, it is essential that the healthcare providers who manage such women are aware of the possibilities.
Journal of Women’s Health and Reproductive Medicine