Impact of Vaccines on Antimicrobial Resistance
Antibiotic use drives the development and spread of resistant bacterial infections. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a proliﬁc global issue, due to signiﬁcant increases in antibiotic use in humans, livestock and agriculture, inappropriate use (under-dosing and over- prescribing), and misuse of antibiotics (for viral infections where they are ineffective). Fewer new antibiotics are being developed.
The problem of AMR:
AMR is now considered a key threat to global health, leading to more mortality and increased healthcare costs threatening future conduct of routine medical procedures. Traditional approaches to address AMR include antibiotic stewardship, better hygiene/infection control, promoting antibiotic research and development, and restricting use for agricultural purposes.
Vaccines as a tool to reduce AMR:
While antibiotic development is declining, vaccine technology is growing. This review shows how vaccines can decrease AMR by preventing bacterial and viral infections, thereby reducing the use/misuse of antibiotics, and by preventing antibiotic-resistant infections. Vaccines are less likely to induce resistance. Some future uses and developments of vaccines are also discussed.
Vaccines, along with other approaches, can help reduce AMR by preventing (resistant) infections and reducing antibiotic use. Industry and governments must focus on the development of novel vaccines and drugs against resistant infections to successfully reduce AMR. A graphical abstract is available online.
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Journal of Autoimmune Disorders