Journal of medical physics and applied sciences is an international peer reviwed journal aiming to publish the most relevant and recent research works across the world. Medical Physicists will contribute to maintaining and improving the quality, safety and cost-effectiveness of healthcare services through patient-oriented activities requiring expert action, involvement or advice regarding the specification, selection, acceptance testing, commissioning, quality assurance/control and optimised clinical use of medical devices and regarding patient risks and protection from associated physical agents (e.g. x-rays, electromagnetic fields, laser light, radionuclides) including the prevention of unintended or accidental exposures; all activities will be based on current best evidence or own scientific research when the available evidence is not sufficient. Medical physics is also called biomedical physics, medical biophysics or applied physics in medicine is, generally speaking, the application of physics concepts, theories and methods to medicine or healthcare. A mammogram is an X-ray of the breast. It’s a screening tool used to detect and diagnose breast cancer. Together with regular clinical exams and monthly breast self-examinations, mammograms are a key element in the early diagnosis of breast cancer.
After undressing from the waist up and taking off any necklaces, a technician will give you a smock or gown that tie in the front. Depending on the testing facility, you may either stand or sit during mammography.
Each breasts fits onto a flat X-ray plate. A compressor will then push the breast down to flatten the tissue. This provides a clearer picture of the breast. You might have to hold your breath for each picture. You may feel a small amount of pressure or discomfort, but it’s usually brief.
During the process, your doctor will review the images as they are made. They may order additional images that show different views if something is unclear or needs further attention. This happens quite frequently and shouldn’t be a cause for upset or panic.
Digital mammograms are sometimes used if they are available. These are especially helpful for women younger than 50 years old, who typically have denser breasts than older women.
A digital mammogram transforms the X-ray into an electronic picture of the breast that saves onto a computer. Images are immediately visible, so your radiologist doesn’t have to wait for the images. The computer can also help your doctor see images that might not have been very visible on a regular mammogram.
As with any type of X-ray, you’re receiving exposure to a very small amount of radiation during mammography. However, the risk from this exposure is extremely low. If a woman is pregnant and absolutely needs a mammogram before her delivery date, she will typically wear a lead apron during the procedure.
Images from a mammogram can help find calcifications, or calcium deposits, in your breasts. Most calcifications aren’t a sign of cancer. The test can also find cysts — fluid-filled sacs that may come and go normally during some women’s menstrual cycles — and any cancerous or noncancerous lumps.
There’s a national diagnostic system for reading mammograms called BI-RADS, or the Breast Imaging Reporting and Database System. In this system, there are seven categories, ranging from zero to six. Each category describes whether additional images are necessary, and whether an area is more likely to have a benign (noncancerous) or cancerous lump.
Each category has its own follow-up plan. Actions on the follow-up plan may include gathering additional images, continuing regular screenings, making an appointment for follow-up in six months, or performing a biopsy.
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Journal of Medical Physics and Applied Sciences